Sebastian to the Abbey of St

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Canisius also includes the years up to in his printing, however, and Rosamond McKitterick speculates that the manuscript originally ran to that date.

However, the identities of these authors remains unknown. The contrast between Louis and his father and grandfather is clear. The Annales Xantenses run from to and are largely independent from the other two continuations.

The inclusion of these somewhat obscure

Scholz posits the work of multiple authors in the royal chapel. The revised texts are based on a Class D manuscript. This edition also includes a Latin-Latin glossary of unusual terms.

The manner of reporting for these years is typically terse, though they include the convention of mentioning Easter and Christmas, which continues throughout the annals. Annals which are said to be of Einhard.

The identities of any of the authors save that of the fourth section are unknown, but production by a group of clerics associated with the Carolingian court is likely. Scholz notes an increased eloquence in the language employed from here on.

For this reason the editor is

See the link above for the first part. The revised text, however, incorporates these events while maintaining a positive tone towards the emperor, presented as a peerless leader in battle. Marcellinus and Peter into Francia. Scholz regards this preoccupation as a reflection of a belief in a divine will and control of history.

The inclusion of these somewhat obscure events, both of which Hilduin was involved with, would be explained by his authorship of the section. For this reason, the editor is believed to have belonged to or been affiliated with this third group of authors. These contain various additions not found in the previous two classes, and Kurze divides them based on what other texts are found in their codices, such as the Liber historiae Francorum.

The author of this section is unknown. This text is contained in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, a useful compilation of primary sources, mainly from Germany and France, in the original language. The Royal Frankish Annals are an important source for the reign of Charlemagne. The five classes of texts are lettered A through D, with an additional E class for the revised text.